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# Quantitative Skills, Thinking, and Reasoning Activities

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How Do We Estimate Magma Viscosity?
chuck connor
SSAC Physical Volcanology module. Students build a spreadsheet to examine how magma viscosity varies with temperature, fraction of crystals, and water content using the non-Arrhenian VFT model.

Bubbles in Magmas
Module by Chuck Connor, University of South Florida, Tampa. This cover page by Ali Furmall, USF, now at U. Oregon.
SSAC Physical Volcanology module. Students build a spreadsheet and apply the ideal gas law to model the velocity of a bubble rising in a viscous magma.

Porosity and Permeability of Magmas
chuck connor
SSAC Physical Volcanology module. Students build a spreadsheet for an iterative calculation to find volume of bubbles and hence porosity, permeability and gas escape as a function of depth.

What is the Volume of the 1992 Eruption of Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua?
chuck connor
SSAC Physical Volcanology module. Students build a spreadsheet to calculate the volume a tephra deposit using an exponential-thinning model.

How Does Surface Deformation at an Active Volcano Relate to Pressure and Volume Change in the Magma Chamber?
Module by Peter LaFemina, Penn State, State College, PA. This cover page by Ali Furmall, University of South Florida, now at University of Oregon.
SSAC Physical Volcanology module. Students build a spreadsheet to examine and apply the Mogi model for horizontal and vertical surface displacement vs. depth and pressure conditions in the magma chamber.

BotEC: Weight of Gold
Barb Tewksbury, Hamilton College
Question Let's suppose that you have a shoe box full of water (the box is waterproof, of course). The shoe box weighs about 9 kg (19.8 pounds). Suppose you emptied the box and filled it completely with rock ...

The Floating Lithosphere - Eureka!
Len Vacher, Dept of Geology, University of South Florida
In this module, students examine Archimede's Principle in general and as it applies to Isostacy.

Sun Spot Analysis
Bob Mackay, Clark College; Mike Clark
Introductory students use Excel to graph monthly mean Greenwich sunspot numbers from 1749 to 2004 and perform a spectral analysis of the data using the free software program "Spectra". -

Waves Through Earth: Interactive Online Mac and PC
JAVA Applet and activity provided by Visual Entities. Starting Point page organized by R.M. MacKay.
Students vary the seismic P and S wave velocity through each of four concentric regions of Earth and match "data" for travel times vs. angular distance around Earth's surface from the source to ...

Mass Balance Model
Activity and Starting Point page by R.M. MacKay. Clark College, Physics and Meteorology.
Students are introduced to the concept of mass balance, flow rates, and equilibrium using an online interactive water bucket model. -