# SSAC Physical Volcanology Modules

Following are short descriptions of the available modules. To access any of them, select from the list and you will connect to cover material including learning goals, context of use, and other information. Within the cover material (under "Teaching Materials") there is a link by which you can download the student version of the module. You can also request an instructor's version by clicking on the "request" link under Teaching Materials.

There are a couple of ways of searching for modules. The box below left provides a full-text search of the cover material about the module, so you can search by author, subject, or keyword. The controlled vocabularies below right allow targeted searches by three different dimensions (click on the links to see the full, hierarchical vocabularies): Math content (Quantitative Concept) (Microsoft Word 41kB Jun17 10), Context (Subject) (Microsoft Word 29kB Jul13 07), and Excel Skill (Microsoft Word 32kB Jul13 07).

[Nine modules have been created and implemented in courses. They are undergoing a final round of edits and will be posted momentarily.]

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## Quantitative Concepts

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Porosity and Permeability of Magmas part of Examples
SSAC Physical Volcanology module. Students build a spreadsheet for an iterative calculation to find volume of bubbles and hence porosity, permeability and gas escape as a function of depth.

Quantitative Concepts: Calculus; Numerical methods:Iteration, Basic arithmetic; Number sense:Rates, Unit conversions, Algebra; Modeling; Functions:Manipulating equations, Geometry; Trigonometry :Spheres, Measurement; Data presentation and analysis; Probability:Visual display of data :XY scatter plots
Subject: Natural science:Earth science, Physics
Excel Skills: Basic Arithmetic:Arithmetic Functions:SUM, Basic Arithmetic:Simple Formulas, Nested Formulas, Graphs and Charts:XY Scatterplot:Multiple Plots, Angles and Trig Functions:PI

What is the Relationship between Lava Flow Length and Effusion Rate at Mt Etna? part of Examples
SSAC Physical Volcanology module. Students use Excel to determine a log-log relationship for flow length vs effusion rate and compare it with a theoretical expression for the maximum flow length.

Quantitative Concepts: Measurement; Data presentation and analysis; Probability:Descriptive statistics; trend lines :Goodness of fit (R2), Measurement; Data presentation and analysis; Probability:Visual display of data :Logarithmic scale, Basic arithmetic; Number sense:Logarithms; orders of magnitude; scientific notation, Unit conversions, Algebra; Modeling; Functions:Nonlinear functions of a single variable:Power function, Measurement; Data presentation and analysis; Probability:Visual display of data :XY scatter plots, Measurement; Data presentation and analysis; Probability:Descriptive statistics; trend lines :Line- and curve-fitting
Subject: Natural science:Earth science
Excel Skills: Other Elementary Math Functions:LOG, LOG10, Graphs and Charts:XY Scatterplot:One Plot, Basic Arithmetic:Nested Formulas, Graphs and Charts:XY Scatterplot, XY Scatterplot:Trendlines, Log Scale

What is the Volume of the 1992 Eruption of Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua? part of Examples
SSAC Physical Volcanology module. Students build a spreadsheet to calculate the volume a tephra deposit using an exponential-thinning model.

Quantitative Concepts: Measurement; Data presentation and analysis; Probability:Visual display of data :XY scatter plots, Geometry; Trigonometry :Circles (including radians and pi), Algebra; Modeling; Functions:Manipulating equations, Basic arithmetic; Number sense:Logarithms; orders of magnitude; scientific notation, Estimation, Unit conversions, Algebra; Modeling; Functions:Straight lines and linear functions:Slope, intercept; linear trends, Algebra; Modeling; Functions:Nonlinear functions of a single variable:Exponential decay, Logarithmic function
Subject: Social science:History, Natural science:Earth science, Physics
Excel Skills: Other Elementary Math Functions:LN, EXP, Basic Arithmetic:Arithmetic Functions:PRODUCT, Graphs and Charts:XY Scatterplot:One Plot, Trendlines, Other Elementary Math Functions:POWER

How Do We Estimate Magma Viscosity? part of Examples
SSAC Physical Volcanology module. Students build a spreadsheet to examine how magma viscosity varies with temperature, fraction of crystals, and water content using the non-Arrhenian VFT model.

Quantitative Concepts: Basic arithmetic; Number sense:Ratio and proportion; percentage; interpolation, Measurement; Data presentation and analysis; Probability:Visual display of data :Logarithmic scale, Algebra; Modeling; Functions:Manipulating equations, Basic arithmetic; Number sense:Logarithms; orders of magnitude; scientific notation, Rates, Algebra; Modeling; Functions:Nonlinear functions of a single variable:Exponential function, Logarithmic function, Measurement; Data presentation and analysis; Probability:Visual display of data :XY scatter plots
Subject: Natural science:Chemistry, Earth science, Physics
Excel Skills: Basic Arithmetic:Nested Formulas, Graphs and Charts:XY Scatterplot:Multiple Plots, Log Scale, One Plot, Other Elementary Math Functions:LN, LOG, LOG10

Bubbles in Magmas part of Examples
SSAC Physical Volcanology module. Students build a spreadsheet and apply the ideal gas law to model the velocity of a bubble rising in a viscous magma.

Quantitative Concepts: Measurement; Data presentation and analysis; Probability:Visual display of data :XY scatter plots, Basic arithmetic; Number sense:Rates, Unit conversions, Ratio and proportion; percentage; interpolation, Algebra; Modeling; Functions:Manipulating equations, Geometry; Trigonometry :Circles (including radians and pi), Spheres
Subject: Natural science:Chemistry, Earth science, Physics
Excel Skills: Basic Arithmetic:Arithmetic Functions:PRODUCT, SUM, Graphs and Charts:XY Scatterplot:Multiple Plots, Angles and Trig Functions:PI

How Does Surface Deformation at an Active Volcano Relate to Pressure and Volume Change in the Magma Chamber? part of Examples
SSAC Physical Volcanology module. Students build a spreadsheet to examine and apply the Mogi model for horizontal and vertical surface displacement vs. depth and pressure conditions in the magma chamber.

Quantitative Concepts: Measurement; Data presentation and analysis; Probability:Descriptive statistics; trend lines :Goodness of fit (R2), Measurement; Data presentation and analysis; Probability:Visual display of data :XY scatter plots, Basic arithmetic; Number sense:Estimation, Unit conversions, Ratio and proportion; percentage; interpolation, Algebra; Modeling; Functions:Manipulating equations, Modeling:Forward modeling, Measurement; Data presentation and analysis; Probability:Visual display of data :Logarithmic scale, Geometry; Trigonometry :Spheres
Subject: Natural science:Physics, Earth science
Excel Skills: Angles and Trig Functions:PI, Basic Arithmetic:Nested Formulas, Simple Formulas, Graphs and Charts:XY Scatterplot:Multiple Plots, Log Scale