MnSTEP Teaching Activity Collection > MnSTEP Activities > Levers: How the Human Body Uses them to its Advantage

Levers: How the Human Body Uses them to its Advantage

Cory Hubble, Secondary Technical Education Program (STEP), Anoka-Hennepin ISD #11, Anoka, MN.

Harman, E. (2000). The Biomechanics of Resistance Exercise. In Baechle, T.R. & Earle,
R. W. (Eds.), Essentials of Strength and Conditioning (pp. 29-32). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Poarch, M. (2002). Bones as Levers, Retrieved July 8, 2007, from
http://www.scienceclass.net/Anatomy/Support/Bones%20as%20levers.pdf
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Summary

Students will apply the concept of levers to the human body and design levers within a musculoskeletal context that meet the definitions of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd class levers. They will first learn the concept of levers, the parts of a lever, and what the different types of levers are used for. Next, they will be shown how the musculoskeletal system is a system of levers and one example of each type of lever. The students will be assessed on their ability to identify types of levers, parts of a lever, mechanical uses of each type of lever, and capacity to build all three types of levers.

Learning Goals

Goals:

Concepts:
Terms associated with levers:

Context for Use

Lesson Format:
Time Needed:
Materials:
Concept Knowledge:

Subject: Biology:Anatomy & Physiology, Physics:Classical Mechanics, Education:Assessment:Exam
Resource Type: Activities:Classroom Activity
Grade Level: High School (9-12)

Description and Teaching Materials

Written exam (Acrobat (PDF) 203kB Jul27 07)
Lecture:
I will take some answers and introduce the concept of levers to help aid us in doing work. Next, I will go through what is a lever, the parts of a lever, and the three classes of levers.
Then I will introduce the concept that the musculoskeletal system is a system of levers designed to allow human movement and work and show them how this is by building all three classes of lever and identifying the parts of each lever:
Guided Practice:
The students will individually reinforce the lecture information by building the same muscles out of clay and identify the parts of the lever system by labeling them on a plastic skeleton. I will walk around and provide assistance. When they are finished they will remove the labels and quiz the person sitting next to them with 5 questions of their choice, correct the impromptu quiz, and then be quizzed by their partner.

Independent Practice:
For independent practice the students will partner up and build two examples of each type of lever on either/both the appendicular and axial skeleton (for a total of 6 levers). When this is completed they will study their levers and when they feel confident they will approach me to present their levers (each will present three) for a grade and then they will each be quizzed by me with random questions on any of the levers. Both partners receive the same grade for the presentations and the quiz. They must be finished with me 10 minutes before the end of the second class period or they receive zeros for the presentation and quiz.

Closure:
To close out this lesson the students will write out a list of activities and identify where the lever is in that activity. This will be done as a group with one piece of paper and the first person verbalizing the activity and the lever while writing down their answer. Then the paper is passed to the next person who does the same thing. This will go around the table three times and no activities may be repeated. Then each group will share two of its activities and as a class we will discuss their answers.

Exam:
There will be a paper/pencil exam during the first half of the third day. It will cover the lever terms and concepts along with some pictures of muscles and their attachments requiring students to identify the type of lever it represents and correctly labeling the parts of that lever.

**You can see an example of this type of test in the Attachments. It is not mine but one I found that I would adapt to my students since I believe this is intended for middle school students.

Teaching Notes and Tips

Tips:
Make sure that students work together on their levers and that they understand they are both responsible for their presentation and quiz grades. This way both people have motivation and a vested interest in learning the material.

Note: the muscles that they create do not have to be real muscles but they must meet the criteria of the lever class they are labeling it as. This reinforces the lever concept and allows them to think about how it works and would attach in order to work as the lever they want it to be. I like this aspect of the activity because it allows them to be creative and think outside the box rather than be confined to "anatomical structure" and be concerned about whether their origin and insertion are correct.

Assessment

Informal assessments:

Formal Assessments:

Standards

II.E.2 - Forces of Nature

References and Resources

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