# Examples

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How Do We Estimate Magma Viscosity? part of Examples

SSAC Physical Volcanology module. Students build a spreadsheet to examine how magma viscosity varies with temperature, fraction of crystals, and water content using the non-Arrhenian VFT model.

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Bubbles in Magmas part of Examples

SSAC Physical Volcanology module. Students build a spreadsheet and apply the ideal gas law to model the velocity of a bubble rising in a viscous magma.

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Porosity and Permeability of Magmas part of Examples

SSAC Physical Volcanology module. Students build a spreadsheet for an iterative calculation to find volume of bubbles and hence porosity, permeability and gas escape as a function of depth.

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What is the Volume of the 1992 Eruption of Cerro Negro Volcano, Nicaragua? part of Examples

SSAC Physical Volcanology module. Students build a spreadsheet to calculate the volume a tephra deposit using an exponential-thinning model.

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How Does Surface Deformation at an Active Volcano Relate to Pressure and Volume Change in the Magma Chamber? part of Examples

SSAC Physical Volcanology module. Students build a spreadsheet to examine and apply the Mogi model for horizontal and vertical surface displacement vs. depth and pressure conditions in the magma chamber.

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How Do We Estimate Melt Density? part of Examples

SSAC Physical Volcanology module. Students build spreadsheets to estimate melt density at high temperatures and pressures from the thermodynamic properties of silicates.

How are Flow Conditions in Volcanic Conduits Estimated? part of Examples

SSAC Physical Volcanology module. Students build a spreadsheet to calculate velocity of rising magma in steady-state Plinian eruptions using conservation of mass and momentum.

Lithospheric Density part of Examples

Students learn about the weighted mean by building spreadsheets that apply this concept to the average density of the oceanic lithosphere.

Radioactive Decay and Popping Popcorn -- Understanding the Rate Law part of Examples

Spreadsheets Across the Curriculum module. Students build spreadsheets to forward model an example of exponential decay and interpret the meaning of the decay constant.

How often do earthquakes occur? part of Examples

Students use spreadsheet tables and charts to explore the relationship between earthquake magnitude and frequency.