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ConcepTest: Groundwater Production

ConcepTest questions by David McConnell, David Steer, Walter Borowski, Jeffrey Dick, Annabelle Foos, Jeffrey Knott, Alvin Konigsberg, Michelle Malone, Heidi McGrew, Kathie Owens, and Stephen Van Horn

Created with funding from NSF CCLI Award #0087894.
This material was originally created for Starting Point:Introductory Geology
and is replicated here as part of the SERC Pedagogic Service.


The cross section below simplifies the groundwater resources in a county in a Midwest state. Which location would have the potential for the best groundwater production?
  • A. Sand and gravel on hilltop
  • B. Shale bedrock
  • C. Sandstone bedrock
  • D. Sand and gravel in stream valley
Graphic for Groundwater Production ConcepTest Question

Student Responses:

The correct response is D.
Percentage of students choosing this answer. (%Before Discussion/%After Discussion)

A. (unknown/9%) B. (unknown/5%) C. (unknown/27%) D. (unknown/59%)

in a large (60+ student) Earth Science class.

If you would like to help acquire more Before and After statistics for this example, please contact the authors (see link at top of page).

References and Notes:

The use of ConcepTests and Peer Instruction is discussed in detail on the ConcepTest page.

McConnell, D.A., Steer, D.N. and Owens, K.A., 2003, Assessment and Active Learning Strategies for Introductory Geology Courses, Journal of Geoscience Education, 51(2), 205-216.

McConnell, D.A., Steer et al., 2006, Using Conceptests to Assess and Improve Student Conceptual Understanding in Introductory Courses, Journal of Geoscience Education, (54(1), 61-68.