Linking Science and Social Issues
[link #Links to SENCER Ideals 'Links to SENCER Ideals'] | [link
#Integrating Science and Civic Questions 'Integrating Science and
We have identified eight "ideals" that we hope SENCER courses and programs will embrace. In this section, the ideals are identified in bold italic and the developer suggests how the course reflects them in plain text.
SENCER robustly connects science and civic engagement by
teaching "through" complex, contested, capacious, current, and
unresolved public issues "to" basic science.
The course exemplifies the SENCER ideals through campus- and community-based projects that are required of all the students. The students choose issues that are of interest to them and connect to their daily lives. They then investigate and explore those issues throughout the quarter and develop recommendations for addressing or alleviating the issue/problem as the final outcome of the project.
In addition, Chemistry and the Environment connects basic chemical principles and civic engagement through the following public issues:
- A discussion of smog, local air quality, and air pollution
regulations requires an understanding of:
- The chemical composition of the atmosphere
- Basic chemical reactions (combustion processes and photochemical reactions)
- Stoichiometry of reactions (How much pollution carbon dioxide is produced by a tank of gasoline, a bag of charcoal, or a container of propane? What is the role of fuel additives? What is MTBE?)
- Driving forces of reactions (conditions of smog generation)
A consideration of smog also opens an avenue to further consideration of the health and economic effects of smog in a chemical context (ozone as an "oxidizer" of lungs,leaves and paint). A discussion of the Clean Air Act opens the door to illustrating effective environmental regulation and also demonstrates how industries can adapt to environmental regulation. Here we consider the catalytic converter (and the wealth of science in discussing how it works) and removal of lead from gasoline. Actions individuals can take to reduce smog are also considered. These include the purchase of a high mileage vehicle (no SUVs), the use of public transportation, the reduction of fireplace usage, and the purchase of a propane grill.
A discussion of acid rain and the effects of acid rain on waterways gives context to basic definitions of acids, bases and buffers. A demonstration I typically use is a "lake in a beaker." When the "lake" (water in a beaker) is neutral, an indicator shows a neutral acidity. When acidic "rain" is added, the indicator changes to reflect the greater acidity. In comparison, I prepare a "lake in a beaker" with a natural limestone buffer system. When acidic "rain" is added, the lake buffers the change in acidity up to the point where the buffer capacity is exceeded and the lake becomes acidic. We then add baking soda to "save" the lake. We also discuss the regional effects of acid rain throughout the world. The acid rain problem is considered in the context of electricity production (coal-burning power plants), which is a sub-theme of the course. Environmental technologies to reduce sulfur dioxide emissions are also presented. In particular, we explore the effectiveness of the sulfur dioxide trading scheme used in the U.S.
- A discussion of atmospheric composition opens the door to
understanding layers of the atmosphere and the important role the
ozone layer plays in protecting life on the surface of the earth.
The class then turns to understanding the science of ozone
depletion and ozone depleting compounds. A historical perspective
on the development and the many uses of CFCs contributes to an
understanding of our present circumstances and hope for the future.
The international regulation of ozone depleting chemicals through
the Montreal Protocol and subsequent agreements demonstrate how
science can inform policy and how international cooperation is
possible. Actions the students can take to help alleviate the
problem are discussed.
- Global climate change provides students with an interesting
contrast to the international policy "success" of ozone depletion.
In particular, many students are exposed to the full body of
scientific evidence for the first time. Last fall, my course was
offered when the follow-up convention to the Kyoto Climate Change
Convention was being held at The Hague. The turmoil around the
refusal of the U.S. to cooperate was an excellent learning
opportunity for students. The newspaper accounts of the meeting
provided a nice way to discuss the science of global science
change. For the final exam, students were asked to critically
evaluate the science presented in a newspaper editorial. Finally,
actions the students can take to help alleviate the problem were
- In a discussion of alternative energy sources, nuclear energy
provides an excellent issue through which one can teach basic
atomic structure, nuclear chemistry and radiation. Atwood provides
an excellent account of the Chernobyl accident and opens a
discussion of reactor design in the U.S. Nuclear waste disposal,
nuclear weapons, and medical applications of nuclear isotopes are
also presented. President Bush's energy policy proposals will add
new currency to this topic.
- Safe drinking water is an important and a fun topic for
students. Thinking about "what is safe?" opens wonderful avenues
for discussion. We talk about where our drinking water comes from
(I ask them, if they are not from the area, where their drinking
water at home comes from. If they do not know I ask them to call
their parents and find out for the next class). We also explore how
drinking water is purified. Using a water quality report from the
San Jose Water Company we explore definitions and limits related to
determining water quality. This is a particularly interesting
exercise since the report is distributed by mail with the water
bill. It is very difficult to understand even for college students.
As we explore the report students gradually feel more comfortable
with the concept of "safe" in the context of the report. Then we
discuss how a sewage treatment plant works and uses of recycled
water from the plant. I ask them to compare the water quality
report of the recycled water to that of the drinking water. We
discuss the treatment step to make the recycled water "the same as"
drinking water and the need to "close the loop" due to water
scarcity - especially in California and other parts of the world. A
discussion of MTBE pollution is a nice connection to air quality
material. Desalination processes are also included. Such issues are
major public policy questions in California and around in the
- Most students do not know what polymers and plastics are and
how different types of polymers correlate to the numbers in the
recycling triangle found on many products. We look at examples of
the 1-7 plastics and discuss why some are recycled and some are
not. The discussion of recycling always relates to their daily life
- particularly in the residence halls. Recycling, arguably, is a
form of civic engagement we all participate in almost habitually
these days - when we are at "home." If time permits, solid waste
policies - on both the local and state levels - are discussed.
SENCER helps reveal the limits of science by identifying the
elements of public issues where science doesn't help us decide what
to do. (To be sure, a good SENCER course would also help students
identify what kinds of knowledge would help.)
Chemistry and the Environment connects to this SENCER ideal in several ways:
- Through ERA projects students gain an understanding of the
complexities of campus issues. For example, one project revealed
that leaf blowers are heavy air polluters. The science indicated
the campus should stop using leaf blowers and return to rakes and
brooms. Unfortunately, discussions with grounds keepers and
facilities managers revealed that the leaf blowers were needed
since staff reductions left a workforce too small to adequately
tend the campus grounds without the time-saving leaf blowers. The
students then moved to recommendations such as electric leaf
blowers that responded to both the science and the economic and
social complexities of a "simple" issue.
- One of the main learning objectives of our science core courses
is for students to learn to tolerate ambiguity. One interpretation
of that learning objective is to facilitate student understanding
of the uncertainty and limits of science. One way in which this is
addressed in Chemistry and the Environment is in discussions of
appropriate methods and detection limits in evaluating water
quality. This past quarter (Fall 2000), students used portable
water test kits and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy
to evaluate water quality. Student experienced first hand the
differences in the detection limits of the two methods. Students
also had a glimpse at the importance of sample preparation and
experimental design in obtaining accurate and reproducible results.
Another important lesson was that one test does not reveal all the
dimensions of water quality. For example, testing for the
biological contamination does not reveal heavy metal contamination.
This particular example is supported by a lecture discussion of
water quality in Bangladesh. Several years ago the WHO convinced
many villagers to stop using surface water and drill wells for
drinking water. Surface water is often contaminated with fecal
waste leading to high incidences of diseases such as cholera.
Unfortunately, the ground water was not tested for arsenic and the
soils in the area are naturally high in arsenic. The area now faces
a huge public health crisis without a clear solution. In the
future, this discussion will be "brought home" by the public policy
debate about safe arsenic levels in US ground water supplies.
Students will consider how safe levels of contaminants are
determined by the government, as well as what interests influence such decisions.
Another public policy issue that hinges on discussion of scientific certainty and confidence is global climate change. Understanding the scientific evidence still leaves open the question of how the United States, the largest emitter of carbon dioxide in the world, should respond? Developed countries will, most likely, be able to adapt better than less developed countries. What is the responsibility of the US in such adaptation?
SENCER shows the power of science by identifying the dimensions of a public issue that can be better understood with certain mathematical and scientific ways of knowing, thus illuminating those elements with that knowledge.
Through ERA projects students gain an appreciation of the power of science. As students work on a project, they participate in a scientific research endeavor. They identify a problem, collect preliminary information (previous ERA work, literature or other sources, observations), develop hypotheses, propose, design and conduct experiments, analyze data, and develop a list of recommendations for SCU based on the results of their work. For example, extending an in-class discussion, projects have explored possible uses of water recycled from a sewage treatment facility. Initially, students shuddered at the idea of drinking such water. But after exploring the science, they recommended its use as drinking water (after appropriate treatment, of course).
Briefly, other course discussion examples include:
- How energy policy demands an understanding of the science of energy production
- Why governments did not take action to reduce the emission of ozone depleting chemicals until scientists discovered the ozone hole and linked ozone depletion to CFCs
- How exploring the methods and models used to predict global temperatures and climate change leads to a clearer understanding of the necessity for global carbon dioxide regulations
We asked each course developer to comment on the connections between their course's basic science content and the civic issues within which their course is framed.
The box below suggests the connections between the scientific content on the left and the public policy issues on the right considered in Chemistry and the Environment.
Photochemical Smog – Clean Air Act, Bay Area Air Quality Control, Emissions Testing of Autos
Ozone Depletion – Montreal Protocol, Updates
Global Warming – Kyoto Conference, Future Carbon Trading
Indoor Air Pollution – OSHA and EPA Regulations
Energy Alternatives and Electric Power Generation – Deregulation in California
Nuclear Power – Regulation in US
Nuclear Waste – Laws and regulations in US