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Resources

Stereotype Threat

Steele, C.M. (1999). Thin Ice: Stereotype Threat and Black College Students. The Atlantic Monthly.

Steele, C. M. and J. Aronson (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African-Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 797-811.

ReducingStereotypeThreat.org: This website offers summaries of research on stereotype threat and discusses unresolved issues and controversies in the research literature. Included are some research-based suggestions for reducing the negative consequences of stereotyping, particularly in academic settings.

Minority Student Achievement Network: The Minority Student Achievement Network (MSAN) is a national coalition of 25 multiracial, suburban-urban school districts that have come together to study and eliminate achievement gaps that exist in their districts.

Several segments from the radio program Radiolab deal with Sterotype Threat.

Solo Status

Biernat, M., C.S. Crandall, L.V. Young, D. Kobrynoqicz, and S.M. Halpin (1998). All That You Can Be: Stereotyping of Self and Others in a Military Context. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 75, No. 2. 301-317.

Crocker, J. and K.M. McGraw (1984). What's Good for the Goose Is Not Good for the Gander: Solo Status as an Obstacle to Occupational Achievement for Males and Females. American Behavioral Scientist January 1984 27: 357-369

Dasgupta, N. (2011). Ingroup Experts and Peers as Social Vaccines Who Inoculate the Self-Concept: The Stereotype Inoculation Model. Psychological Inquiry: An International Journal for the Advancement of Psychological Theory. Volume 22, Issue 4, Page 231.

Inzlicht, M., and Ben-Zeev, T. (2003). Do high-achieving female students underperform in private? The Implications of threatening environments on intellectual processing. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 796-805.

Kanter, R.M. (1977). Men and women of the corporation. New York: Basic Books.

Rosser, S.V. (2004). The Science Glass Ceiling: Academic Women Scientists and the Struggle to Succeed. NY, NY: Rutledge. 192 p.

Saenz, D.S. (1994). Token Status and Problem-Solving Deficits: Detrimental Effects of Distinctiveness and Performance Monitoring. Social Cognition: Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 61-74.

Sekaquaptewa, D. and M. Thompson (2002). The differential effects of solo status on members of high- and low-status groups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 694-707.

Thompson, M. and D. Sekaquaptewa (2002). When Being Different is Detrimental: Solo Status and the Performance of Women and Racial Minorities. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, v. 2, n. 1, p. 183-203.

Vohs, K.D., R.F. Baumeister, and N.J. Ciarocco (2005). Self-Regulation and Self-Presentation: Regulatory Resource Depletion Impairs Impression Management and Effortful Self-Presentation Depletes Regulatory Resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 88(4), Apr 2005, 632-657.

Mitigating Impacts

Cohen, G.L., C.M. Steele, and L.D. Ross (1999). The Mentor's Dilemma: Providing Critical Feedback Across the Racial Divide. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 1999 25: 1302

Cohen, G.L., J. Garcia, N. Apfel, and A. Master (2006). Reducing the racial achievement gap: A social-psychological intervention. Science, 313, 1307-1310.

Dasgupta, N. (2011). Ingroup Experts and Peers as Social Vaccines Who Inoculate the Self-Concept: The Stereotype Inoculation Model. Psychological Inquiry: An International Journal for the Advancement of Psychological Theory. Volume 22, Issue 4, Page 231.

Kost-Smith, L.E., S.J. Pollock, and N.D. Finkelstein (2010). Gender disparities in second-semester college physics: The incremental effects of a "smog of bias". Phys. Rev. ST Physics Ed. Research 6, 020112

Martens, A., Johns, M., Greenberg, J., and Schimel (2006). Combating stereotype threat: The effect of self-affirmation on women's intellectual performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 236-243.

Schimel, J., J. Arndt, K.M. Banko, and A. Cook (2004). Not All Self-affirmations Were Created Equal: The Cognitive and Social Benefits of Affirming The Intrinsic (vs. Extrinsic) Self. Social Cognition: Vol. 22, The Art and Science of Self-Defense, pp. 75-99.

Walton and Cohen, 2011 A Brief Social-Belonging Intervention Improves Academic and Health Outcomes of Minority Students. Science, Vol. 331 no. 6023 pp. 1447-1451.



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