The importance of spatial thinking for geoscience education: Insights from the crossroads of geoscience and cognitive science
L.S. Liben 2012 in Kastens, K.A., and Manduca, C.A., eds.,Earth and Mind II: A Synthesis of Research on Thinking and Learning in the Geosciences: Geological Society of America Special Paper 486 p. 51-70
This paper uses "a day in the life of a field geologist" as a means to explore the spatial skills used by geoscientists on a regular basis, the cognitive skills that underlie those spatial skills, and how geoscience teaching might be modified to build the particular cognitive and spatial skills needed. The authors specifically discuss geoscience skills such as map reading and navigation, 3D visualization, and orientation.