Recent gullies on Mars and the source of liquid water
M. T. Mellon, R. J. Phillips 2001 Journal of Geophysical Research v 106 p 23,165-23179
This article from the Journal of Geophysical Research evaluates two mechanisms for the generation of liquid water at the surface of Mars in relation to recently discovered gullies. The first involves melting of near-surface ground ice by solar heating, while the second involves melting and re-freezing of water at the base of the permafrost by geothermal heating. Standard numerical models of ground temperatures and ground ice stability were employed. Graphs, diagrams and photographs highlight the text.