Making Solid Solutions with Alkali Halides (and Breaking Them) part of Cutting Edge:Mineralogy:Activities
In this exercise, the class will grow a variety of crystals of the same mineral, but with different chemical compositions. These crystals will be made from mixtures of halite eNaCI)and sylvite (KCI) that are melted and cooled. The principle goal of these experiments is to demonstrate that solid solutions do occur and that their physical properties vary with their chemical composition. Additional goals include studying the effect of composition on melting, exploring the process of exsolution as a function of temperature, and seeing the effect of fluids and deformation on crystallization kinetics.
Phase Diagrams from Kitchen Chemistry part of Cutting Edge:Petrology:Teaching Examples
The main pdf file describes a series of lab or lecture activities using water, salt, ice, sugar, and alcohol that can be used to help students understand simple phase diagrams. The supporting pdf file contains larger images of the phase diagrams for use as a pdf slide show or for printing handouts.
Enthalpy of Magmatic Crystallization part of Cutting Edge:Petrology:Teaching Examples
This is a problem set that gets students to think quantitatively about magmas. To be most effective, it should be done in conjunction with a showing of some or all (I recommend some...) of the movie "Volcano." How much water would be needed to stop a lava flow on Wilshire Blvd. in Los Angeles?!
Graphing Chemical Data to Identify Fractional Crystallization part of Cutting Edge:Petrology:Teaching Examples
Students are given major-element, whole-rock chemical analyses from ten samples of lava from the 1868 eruption of Mauna Loa. They do not know sequence of eruption, only that the lavas came from the same volcano. Students are asked to evaluate the hypothesis that the observed chemical variation is due to the fractional crystallization of olivine. The hypothesis can be tested any of a number of graphs. Several examples are given in the accompanying Excel workbook.
Useful Phase Diagrams part of Cutting Edge:Petrology:Teaching Examples
These are some drafted phase diagrams that may be useful as part of pdf slide shows to illustrate lectures or as handouts. Some are schematic; some are based on experiments. PDF files can be opened with Adobe Illustrator to edit and modify if you wish. Use "Command" (Mac) or "Control" L in Acrobat to see as a slide show (advance with arrow keys, Cmd or Ctrl L to end).
Igneous Rock Classification part of Starting Point-Teaching Entry Level Geoscience:First Day of Class:Activities
John Brady, Smith College Course: Petrology 10 students The most effective way to develop geoscience skills in your students is to make opportunities for them to practice those skills. Although prior knowledge may ...
Phase Diagrams (and Pseudosections) part of Integrating Research and Education:Teaching Phase Equilibria
Compiled by Dexter Perkins (University of North Dakota) and John Brady (Smith College) Standard phase diagrams are graphical representations of the equilibrium relationships between minerals (or others phases). ...
Plotting Mineral Compositions, and Chemographic Projections part of Integrating Research and Education:Teaching Phase Equilibria
John Brady (Smith College) and Cam Davidson (Carleton College) Minerals and rocks have chemical compositions that comprise some of the most important data for phase equilibria studies. Important relationships ...
Mineral Formulae Recalculation part of Integrating Research and Education:Teaching Phase Equilibria
John Brady, Smith College and Dexter Perkins, University of North Dakota What is it? Chemical analyses for silicate minerals are commonly reported in weight percentages of the oxides of the elements determined. ...
Teaching Petrology Participants: Leader