Ocean Acidification and the West Coast of North AmericaRichard Rueb, Science, Clackamas Community College
SummaryThe world's oceans are becoming increasingly acidic as a result of rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The coastal waters of the West Coast of North America are especially vulnerable to ocean acidification because of both the seasonal upwelling events that bring acidic waters to the surface and because runoff of nutrients from land stimulates the growth of algae. Increasing ocean acidity interferes with the metabolism and reproduction of marine organisms that have calcium carbonate shells such as corals and sea urchins, threatening both ocean food chains and the shellfish industries and economies of West Coast states.
Ocean acidification is already having negative impacts on the shellfish industries of the Pacific Northwest. There have been massive die offs of scallops in British Columbia and of larvae at the Northwest's oyster hatcheries. The shellfish industry of Oregon and Washington alone is worth $272 million and employs 3,200 people, so additional ocean acidification could potentially result in both large losses to local and state economies and the layoff of hundreds or even thousands of shellfish industry workers.
In this case study, British Columbia and the states of Oregon, Washington, and California engage in a collaborative effort to examine the causes, effects, and extent of ocean acidification along their Pacific coastlines and to estimate the risks of ocean acidification for the their shellfish industries and economies. The case study also explores the potential for mitigation of ocean acidification and possible responses to any economic impacts and employment losses if ocean acidification continues. Oregon, Washington, California, and British Columbia will a establish a "West Coast Ocean Acidification and Hypoxia Science Panel" that will bring together scientists to develop recommendations for research and monitoring ocean acidification in the Pacific Ocean. The Institute for Natural Resources at Oregon State University and the California Ocean Science Trust will integrate the recommendations of the science panel with management and decision making by government decision-makers.
Individuals with expertise/responsibilities in the following areas have helped create the case study:
- The governors of Oregon, Washington, and California and the Premier of British Columbia
- Mayors of West Coast cities with shellfish industries
- Members of the Institute for Natural Resources at Oregon State University and the California Ocean Science Trust
- Research scientists from the fields of oceanography, biogeochemistry, marine biology, ecology, and physiology at Oregon, Washington, California, and British Columbia universities
- Representatives from West Coast shellfish industries
Key teaching points:
- The importance of understanding the relationship between carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and ocean acidification.
- The impact of ocean acidification on marine organisms that form calcium carbonate shells.
- The impact of ocean acidification on the shellfish industry of the West Coast of North America.
- The current and potential economic impacts of ocean acidification on the West Coast of North America.
- Options for mitigating ocean acidification in the coastal waters of the West Coast of North America and for remediation of economic impacts and employment losses.
How this example is used in the classroom:
I am not currently using this example in the classroom because it is still under development. I am tentatively planning to have groups of 3-5 students assume the roles of each of the key experts or stakeholders involved with the example. Each group of students will do the research necessary to become knowledgeable about their role. Groups of key experts and stakeholders will then collaborate in an attempt to develop plans for mitigation of ocean acidification and remediation of its economic impacts.
See Robert's related teaching activity Using the pH Scale and Carbonic Acid Formation to Understand the Effect of Ocean Acidification on Organisms with Calcium Carbonate Shells.
- Governor Kitzhaber Announces West Coast Acidification and Hypoxia Panel from OREGON.GOV-http://www.oregon.gov/gov/media_room/Pages/press_releases/press_082813.aspx
- Scallops Die-Off Shows Importance of Ocean Acidification Research: Guest Opinion, from Oregon Live (The Oregonian)
- Tipping Point, from Terra Magazine, News and Research Communications, Oregon State University
- Acid Ocean, from Terra Magazine, News and Research Communications, Oregon State University
- Breaking Waves, from Oregon Sea Grant, Oregon State University