After completing this chapter, students will be able to:
- Search for, request, and download weather station data from NCDC/NOAA.
- Manipulate data in a spreadsheet to produce graphs.
- Analyze graphs to interpret differences in climate temperatures in at least two locations.
- Compare multiple sets of time series data (daily or annual).
- Use equations in a spreadsheet to convert degrees Centigrade to degrees Fahrenheit.
This chapter introduces tools and techniques for examining temperature patterns for locations around the world, and for comparing these patterns to regional and global trends. Students investigate how local trends compare with regional and global trends. Two key questions that guide the chapter are, "Do patterns in some areas more closely match global patterns?" and "Do some areas serve as indicators of future global trends?"
The tool used for this analysis is Microsoft Excel. The data manipulation techniques in this chapter represent common skills used in business, accounting and finance, sales and marketing, science, engineering, and health care.
- Information on the National Climate Data Center (NCDC)
- NOAA's State of the Climate National overview report.
- National Climate Data Center (NCDC) Climate Monitoring site with links to global temperatures and U.S. temperatures and precipitation.
- NOAA's global trends related to temperature change.
- NASA's Earth Observatory Fact Sheet on Global Warming.
- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's comprehensive Climate Change site.
- Why climate change matters at Climate Central.
- Information on the Global Surface Network.
It may help to work in small groups with each group assigned a particular state or U.S. region. This would facilitate greater coverage of the entire United States and could team novices with more experienced computer users.
The following National Science Education Standards are supported by this chapter:
8ASI1.3 Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data. The use of tools and techniques, including mathematics, will be guided by the question asked and the investigations students design. The use of computers for the collection, summary, and display of evidence is part of this standard. Students should be able to access, gather, store, retrieve, and organize data, using hardware and software designed for these purposes.
12ASI1.3 Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications. A variety of technologies, such as hand tools, measuring instruments, and calculators, should be an integral component of scientific investigations. The use of computers for the collection, analysis, and display of data is also a part of this standard. Mathematics plays an essential role in all aspects of an inquiry. For example, measurement is used for posing questions, formulas are used for developing explanations, and charts and graphs are used for communicating results.
12ASI2.3 Scientists rely on technology to enhance the gathering and manipulation of data. New techniques and tools provide new evidence to guide inquiry and new methods to gather data, thereby contributing to the advance of science. The accuracy and precision of the data, and therefore the quality of the exploration, depends on the technology used.
GSOD Station list, data format and data used in this chapter.GSOD_station_list.txt ( 2.9MB Jan20 11) Over 9000 stations globally.
GSOD_data_description.txt ( 15kB Jan20 11) format and units of variables
BarrowGSOD.txt ( 3.2MB Jan18 11) full data file for all years at Barrow.
Global Surface Network station list, data format and data files used in this chapter.GSN_station_list.txt ( 36kB Jan20 11) Over 9000 stations globally.
GSN_monthly_data_documentation.txt ( 2kB Jan12 11) format and units of variables
BarrowGSN.txt (Text File 121kB Jan12 11) full data file for all years at Barrow.
Excel Files at progressive stages of Parts 2, 3, and 4.
Key West and Barrow GSOD data at the end of Part 4, Step 1.
keywest-GSOD.xls ( 4.4MB Jan17 11)
Text file of Key West GSN data used in Part 4, Step2.
keywestgsn.txt ( 69kB Jan18 11)
Key West GSN data at the end of Part 4, Step 2.
keywestgsn_part4_final.xls ( 294kB Jan17 11)