Earth Exploration Toolbook Chapters
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Climate History from Deep Sea Sediments
DATA: Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Core Data. TOOL: Virtual Ocean. SUMMARY: Locate potential core, log, and seismic data to map the marine sediment biostratigraphy. Search for a specific planktonic foraminifera that prefers warmer ocean conditions.
Cool Cores Capture Climate Change
DATA: ANDRILL Sediment Core Data. TOOL: Paleontological Stratigraphic Interval Construction and Analysis Tool (PSICAT). SUMMARY: Create graphic models of sediment cores based on data provided by ANDRILL scientists to demonstrate evidence of climate change over Earth's Geologic Time.
Detecting El Niño in Sea Surface Temperature Data
DATA: Sea Surface Temperature (SST). TOOL: My World GIS. SUMMARY: Examine 15 years of SST data from the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory. Create and analyze average SST maps to identify El Nino and La Nina events.
Envisioning Climate Change Using a Global Climate Model
DATA: NASA/GISS Model II Global Climate Model. TOOL: Educational Global Climate Modeling Suite (EdGCM). SUMMARY: Run climate modeling software to visualize how temperature and snow coverage might change over the next 100 years.
Exploring NCAR Climate Change Data Using GIS
DATA: NCAR Climate Change Scenarios. TOOL: ArcGIS. SUMMARY: Calculate summer average temperatures during the growing season (June, July, and August) using simulated, present-day, climate-modeled output and compare these to temperatures calculated using projected, future, climate-modeled output. Create a temperature anomaly map to summarize the analysis.
Exploring Regional Differences in Climate Change
DATA: Climate Model Predictions TOOLS: EOS-Webster, Spreadsheet application SUMMARY: Produce and analyze graphs to compare climate predictions among U.S. states through the year 2100.
Global Change in Local Places
DATA: SHALDRIL Core Data; NOAA Pollen data TOOL: GeoMapApp SUMMARY: Import Antarctic sediment core data files into GeoMapApp to create maps and graphs. Use data to infer past climate conditions based on current vegetation distributions.
How Permanent is Permafrost?
DATA: NSIDC Permafrost Extent, NASA GISS Surface Temperature, Siberian Arctic Soil and Borehole Temperature TOOLS: Google Earth and Microsoft Excel SUMMARY: Explore the location of permafrost research sites in the Siberian Arctic with Google Earth. Then use Microsoft Excel to graph and analyze trends in borehole temperature data. Compare the borehole temperature record with global temperature trends and hypothesize the possible future of Arctic permafrost.
Investigating Climate Change Using Observed Temperature Data
DATA: Historic temperature data from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). TOOL: Spreadsheet. SUMMARY: Download, import, and graph temperature data. Compare different locations and investigate changes in annual average temperature over time.
Is Greenland Melting?
DATA: Thickness, velocity, and annual melt extents of the Greenland ice sheet TOOL: My World GIS SUMMARY: Explore map layers to examine annual melting and long-term changes of Greenland's ice sheet.