This chapter is appropriate for students in grades 7-12.
After completing this chapter, students will be able to:
- download, install, and use Google Earth to analyze population density data and NASA Aura NO2 data;
- interpret image data to identify locations with relatively high concentrations of nitrogen dioxide;
- interpret image data to identify locations with relatively high concentrations of human population;
- determine relationships among population, NO2 concentrations, and geographic location; and
- investigate seasonal effects on NO2 concentration.
Information about nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and regional air quality:
- AIRnow: An inter-governmental agency that provides air quality information about specific localities.
- Hazards associated with NO2: The Environmental Protection Agency information about NO2 problems.
Information about the NASA Aura mission:
- The NASA Aura mission and spacecraft: An overview of the mission, spacecraft, and instruments.
Schoeberl, M.R., Douglass, A.R., Hilsenrath, E., Bhartia, P.K., Beer, R., Waters, J.W., Gunson, M.R., Froidevaux, L., Gille, J.C., Barnett, J.J., Levelt, P.F., & DeCola, P. (2006).
- Overview of the EOS Aura mission
- Information about the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder
Information about Google Earth:
- Google Earth for Educators: Information about using Google Earth and activities that can be done with it (developed by Google and Discovery Education).
- Designing and Creating Earth Science Lessons with Google EarthTM, (PDF file) Kluge, S., Patrick, D., & Fermann, E. (2007).
The following National Science Education Standards are supported by this chapter:
8ASI1.3 Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data. The use of tools and techniques, including mathematics, will be guided by the question asked and the investigations students design. The use of computers for the collection, summary, and display of evidence is part of this standard. Students should be able to access, gather, store, retrieve, and organize data, using hardware and software designed for these purposes.
8ASI1.4 Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence. Students should base their explanation on what they observed, and as they develop cognitive skills, they should be able to differentiate explanation from description - providing causes for effects and establishing relationships based on evidence and logical argument. This standard requires a subject knowledge base so the students can effectively conduct investigations, because developing explanations establishes connections between the content of science and the contexts within which students develop new knowledge.
8ASI2.4 Technology used to gather data enhances accuracy and allows scientists to analyze and quantify results of investigations.
8EST2.4 Perfectly designed solutions do not exist. All technological solutions have tradeoffs, such as safety, cost, efficiency, and appearance. Engineers often build in back-up systems to provide safety. Risk is part of living in a highly technological world. Reducing risk often results in new technology.
12ASI1.3 Use technology and mathematics to improve investigations and communications. A variety of technologies, such as hand tools, measuring instruments, and calculators, should be an integral component of scientific investigations. The use of computers for the collection, analysis, and display of data is also a part of this standard. Mathematics plays an essential role in all aspects of an inquiry. For example, measurement is used for posing questions, formulas are used for developing explanations, and charts and graphs are used for communicating results.
12ASI1.4 Formulate and revise scientific explanations and models using logic and evidence. Student inquiries should culminate in formulating an explanation or model. Models should be physical, conceptual, and mathematical. In the process of answering the questions, the students should engage in discussions and arguments that result in the revision of their explanations. These discussions should be based on scientific knowledge, the use of logic, and evidence from their investigation.
The following U.S. National Geography Standards are supported by this chapter:
1. How to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technologies to acquire, process, and report information from a spatial perspective.
3. How to analyze the spatial organization of people, places, and environments on Earth's surface.
4. The physical and human characteristics of places.
14. How human actions modify the physical environment
- Completed and saved complete Google Earth project file Aura NO2 and Population Density.kmz (KMZ File 1014kB Nov15 11). This file contains all three data files (from 2010) to be used with the chapter. If you download this file, you will NOT need the other three files, below.
- Individual data: