View across stagnant moraine-covered ice of the Kennicott Glacier ablation zone showing white spruce forest in middle ground. Habitat of white spruce forest is limited by the glacier, of course, but also by cold summer temperatures in the alpine zone of higher elevations, and also by avalanche chutes and rock glaciers. The roles of fire and bark beetles in growth of this forest are controlled to a surprising degree by the glacier itself, as discussed in the text.
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Provenance Michael G Loso, Alaska Pacific University
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