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Detecting El Niño in Sea Surface Temperature Data
SST anomalies for December 1997 displayed in My World GIS. Red indicates above average temperatures compared to average SST temperatures for December data averaged over the years 1982-1998. This chapter introduces you to normal seasonal sea surface temperature (SST) variation as well as extreme variation, as in the case of El Niño and La Niña events, in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. You will learn how to download seasonal SST data from the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL), via a THREDDS server, for the years 1982 to 1998. With My World GIS, you will visualize and analyze that data, looking for the tell-tale SST signature of El Niño and La Niña events that occurred during that time period. At the conclusion of the chapter, you will be given the opportunity to analyze a season of your own choosing to determine if an El Niño and La Niña SST pattern emerged in that year's data.

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This website features an animation of the process of radioactive decay. Users can select the half life of the nuclei and watch them decay away as a function of time. Shown also is a histogram of the number of nuclei remaining at a given time.

Dryland Rivers Research

This site is intended to stimulate research by providing an information focus and provoking networking between those working on dryland rivers and the sediments they leave behind. Topics covered include processes and products, hydrology, dynamics, architecture of rivers and their floodplains, adjacent and interacting processes, modern and ancient dryland rivers and integration of geomorphology and sedimentology. Users may follow links to dryland river descriptions and myths, hot topics, a discussion forum, images and other useful information.

Chemical Weathering of Feldspar to Clay

This site features a short animation that shows the evolution of an unaltered feldspar crystal to a clay as a result of progressive chemical weathering. The animation can be paused and rewound to emphasize important points associated with the content. As the clip rolls, captions explain what viewers are observing.

Weathering and Mineral Evolution

This annotated slide set shows how the introduction of rain water changes the elemental composition of parent material as it is weathered into first immature and then mature soil. The site illustrates and explains the chemical weathering of aluminum, iron, silicon, calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium minerals under minimal, moderate, and intensive weathering conditions. Captions also explain in which climates each type of weathering occurs.

Weathering and Clay Evolution

This annotated animation shows how primary minerals lose content at a linear pace. The site illustrates how primary minerals, 2:1 clays, 1:1 clays, and aluminum and iron oxides develop as a function of time.

Mineral Weathering

This annotated animation explains how chemical weathering affects the evolution of parent material from highly resistant primary minerals to both secondary minerals and minerals in solution. It illustrates how, over time, weathering changes both the elemental and the mineral composition of soil.

Dynamics of Steady-State Drainage Basins: An Experimental Approach

This site contains animations and data of erosion on a small scale and numerical landscape erosion models. Erosion on small scale models were developed in an erosion facility that allows a miniature landscape to erode through several relief distances at constant base level fall and rainfall rates. Numerical landscape erosion animations are modified from published models with changes to numerical lattice boundaries such as stream curvatures, hillslope failure and directional diffusion. Tables and diagrams provide spatial and temporal statistics of experimental landscapes. Also available on this website are PDF versions of Les Hasbargen's publications and presentations.

Turbidity Current Movies

These turbidity, or density, current movies from Wesleyan University's Learning Objects website show turbidity current experiments conducted in a 1 meter long tank. In the lab, the tank angle and liquid density can be varied to observe various flow patterns which can be digitally recorded and later observed to calculate the different flow rates.

Indian Ocean Tsunami Quicktime Animation

This Quicktime animation, by Dr. Steven Ward at the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the University of California - Santa Cruz, shows the tsunami's progress across the Indian Ocean. It also shows some water level graphs and wave run-up heights throughout the region.

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