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Print and Online References

This is a collection of print and online references about spatial thinking and learning.

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Sketching Block Diagrams
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
Students watch a video of the instructor sketching two geologic block diagrams (of flat stratigraphy and of an upright anticline), then practice sketching additional geologic block diagrams.

Slicing Cylinders
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
Students identify and draw slices through cylinders and partial cylinders, and use gestures to visualize slicing planes. This practice with visualizing slices through idealized geometric shapes is preparation for visualizing slices through geological features.

Slicing Fruit
Tom Hickson, University of St. Thomas (MN)
Students identify and draw slices through fruit, as practice for drawing slices through more complex features.

Slicing Rocks
Tom Hickson, University of St. Thomas (MN)
Students examine images of a bowl of rocks, then several rock piles, then outcrops of conglomerate and breccia. They sketch slices through the bowl of rocks, match photos of rock piles to sketches of slices through those piles, and then apply what they've learned to describe the conglomerate and breccia.

Slicing Channels
Tom Hickson, University of St. Thomas (MN)
Students examine 3D channel-shaped objects and 2D slices through those objects. The purpose is to get them thinking about how the 3D geometry of a channel is reduced to a random 2D slice through the channel in a typical outcrop, so that they can recognize channel deposits.

Gestures for Miller Indices
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
Students use one hand to gesture crystallographic axes and the other hand to represent planes designated by Miller Indices.

Slicing Fossils
Tom Hickson, University of St. Thomas (MN)
Students examine images of brachiopods, mollusks, and coquinas. They identify, visualize, and sketch slices through a variety of shelly organisms, then apply what they've learned to identify fossils in several samples of coquina.

Using Gesture to Support Spatial Thinking
Kristin Gagnier, Johns Hopkins University
This activity highlights the value of gesture in communicating spatial information. It consists of two short exercises. In the first, students are asked to pair up and describe to their partner how to navigate from one place to another in their home town. In the second, a volunteer is asked to sit on his or her hands and describe how to tie a bow with a piece of ribbon. In the first exercise, students spontaneously gesture; in the second, the volunteer will very much want to gesture and may be unable to complete the task under the restriction given (sitting on hands).

Sketching 3D Ripples and Dunes
Tom Hickson, University of St. Thomas (MN)
Students watch a video of the instructor sketching 3D ripples, then practice sketching 3D bedforms, both as seen by the viewer and as annotated 3D block diagrams.

Visualizations
This is a collection of visualizations of spatial phenomena or data, including a few visualization-based teaching activities. Search the collection to find visualizations you can use in your classes. To find a ...

Print and Online References
This is a collection of print and online references about spatial thinking and learning. To find a reference that meets your needs, try Typing keywords into the search box below Refining your search by clicking on ...

Teaching Activities
These teaching activities have a strong spatial thinking component. Search the collection to find activities suitable for your classes. To find a teaching activity that meets your needs, try Typing keywords into ...

Conveners
Mary Hegarty, Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara Carol Ormand, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College Eric Riggs, Geosciences, Texas A&M University Tim Shipley, Psychology, Temple ...

Teaching Activities
The activities in this collection are designed to help undergraduate geoscience students develop their spatial visualization skills, and particularly their penetrative thinking skills: the ability to visualize ...

Spatial Thinking in Geosciences
Spatial thinking is thinking that finds meaning in the shape, size, orientation, location, direction or trajectory, of objects, processes or phenomena, or the relative positions in space of multiple objects, ...

Spatial Thinking Resources
A collection of resources related to understanding spatial thinking in the geosciences. HelpNo matchesNew Search From the main search screen you can browse through the collection using the terms on the right of the ...

Journal Club Overview
Complex folds in Anti-Atlas Mountains of Algeria. Image from Google Earth. This journal club provided an opportunity to dive into the literature on spatial thinking, particularly in the context of the geosciences, ...

Spatial Thinking Journal Club Findings
This summary was compiled by Carol Ormand, Science Education Resource Center. From January to May, 2012, the Spatial Thinking Journal Club met once a month to explore the cognitive aspects of spatial thinking and ...

Prior Research on Spatial Thinking
Spatial Reasoning in STEM Spatial thinking skills are essential in STEM fields Spatial reasoning is critical to success in the STEM disciplines and the skills that make up spatial reasoning are not explicitly ...

Publications and Presentations
2015 Ormand, Carol, Thomas F. Shipley, Barbara Dutrow, Laurel Goodwin, Thomas A. Hickson, Basil Tikoff, Kinnari Atit, Kristin Michod Gagnier, and Ilyse Resnick (2015). Teaching Spatial Thinking in Mineralogy, ...



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