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Print and Online References

This is a collection of print and online references about spatial thinking and learning.

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Spatial Thinking Workbook
This project is developing and testing teaching materials to improve the spatial thinking skills of geoscience undergraduates, using strategies supported by cognitive science and geoscience education research.

Spatial Thinking in the Geosciences
Spatial thinking is fundamental in the geosciences. From visualizing atmospheric, ocean, or mantle circulation patterns to navigating unfamiliar landscapes to constructing a cross-section through deformed rocks, ...

Linear and Planar Features
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
Students gesture the orientations of linear and planar features. In the first part of the exercise, students can only see one surface of a wooden block, and are asked to speculate about how planar features penetrate through the interior. Later, they uncover the other faces of the block and gesture the actual orientations.

Contractional Strain
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
Students use gesture to describe the bulk deformation and local deformation apparent in images of a contractional analog experiment. Students then calculate bulk shortening and bulk thickening for the experiment and describe the structures accommodating that strain.

Miller Indices
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
Students use one hand to gesture crystallographic axes and the other hand to represent planes designated by Miller Indices.

Deformation Mechanisms and Microstructures
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
In this exercise, students match microstructures to the deformation mechanisms by which they form; compare pairs of photomicrographs chosen to highlight key differences between some common microstructures; and complete a self-quiz in which they identify microstructures and infer deformation mechanisms from photomicrographs.

Folds and Cleavage
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
In this exercise, students explore the geometric relationship between bedding/cleavage intersections and fold axes for axial planar, fanning, and transecting cleavage.

Restraining Bends and Releasing Bends
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
In this exercise, students use gestures to re-create the motion of fault blocks adjacent to restraining bends and releasing bends. They then answer a few questions about a map view of the San Andreas Fault and two of its bends.

Primary Structures and Rotation
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
Students gesture the orientations of cross-bedded sandstones, and in particular the relationship between a single cross bed and the bed sets. They do this for photos of undeformed and deformed cross-bedding.

Slices Through 3D Objects
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
In this exercise, students identify and draw slices through an ice cream cone, a pyramid, and a beverage six-pack.

Spatial Thinking Journal Club
January - May, 2012 Three-dimensional view of the global wind circulation patterns due to unequal heating at the equator and the poles. Image from NASA's Remote Sensing Tutorial: The Water Planet - ...

Journal Club Overview
Complex folds in Anti-Atlas Mountains of Algeria. Image from Google Earth. This journal club provided an opportunity to dive into the literature on spatial thinking, particularly in the context of the geosciences, ...

Visualizations
This is a collection of visualizations of spatial phenomena or data, including a few visualization-based teaching activities. Search the collection to find visualizations you can use in your classes. To find a ...

Print and Online References
This is a collection of print and online references about spatial thinking and learning. To find a reference that meets your needs, try Typing keywords into the search box below Refining your search by clicking on ...

Teaching Activities
These teaching activities have a strong spatial thinking component. Search the collection to find activities suitable for your classes. To find a teaching activity that meets your needs, try Typing keywords into ...

Spatial Thinking Journal Club Findings
This summary was compiled by Carol Ormand, Science Education Resource Center. From January to May, 2012, the Spatial Thinking Journal Club met once a month to explore the cognitive aspects of spatial thinking and ...

Conveners
Mary Hegarty, Psychology, University of California, Santa Barbara Carol Ormand, Science Education Resource Center, Carleton College Eric Riggs, Geosciences, Texas A&M University Tim Shipley, Psychology, Temple ...

About this Project
Goals The Spatial Thinking Workbook project is focused on improving spatial skills in upper-division undergraduate geoscience courses. Specifically, our goal is to improve students' penetrative thinking ...

Prior Research on Spatial Thinking
Spatial Reasoning in STEM Spatial thinking skills are essential in STEM fields Spatial reasoning is critical to success in the STEM disciplines and the skills that make up spatial reasoning are not explicitly ...

Research Recommendations from the Spatial Thinking Journal Club
This summary was compiled by Carol Ormand, Science Education Resource Center. From January to May, 2012, the Spatial Thinking Journal Club met once a month to explore the cognitive aspects of spatial thinking and ...

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