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Print and Online References

This is a collection of print and online references about spatial thinking and learning.

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Research on Learning: Spatial Intelligence

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Results 1 - 20 of 37 matches

Comparing Quartz Polymorphs
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
Students compare the structures of low-temperature and high-temperature polymorphs of quartz, relating their differences to symmetry and crystal systems.

Understanding Polyhedral Diagrams
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
Students identify individual polyhedra in a variety of diagrams and answer questions about shared oxygens in diagrams of common silicate structures.

Introduction to 3D Sketching
Tom Hickson, University of St. Thomas (MN)
This activity provides an introduction to 3D sketching. Students sketch a cube, boxes, and cylinders. They watch a video about how to sketch boxes and cylinders, and then sketch a few more.

Sketching 3D Ripples and Dunes
Tom Hickson, University of St. Thomas (MN)
Students watch a video of the instructor sketching 3D ripples, then practice sketching 3D bedforms, both as seen by the viewer and as annotated 3D block diagrams.mpty

Slices Through 3D Objects
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
Students identify and draw slices through an ice cream cone, a pyramid, and a beverage six-pack.

Deformation Mechanisms and Microstructures
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
Students match microstructures to the deformation mechanisms by which they form; compare pairs of photomicrographs chosen to highlight key differences between some common microstructures; and complete a self-quiz in which they identify microstructures and infer deformation mechanisms from photomicrographs.

Deciphering Mineral Structure Diagrams
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
Students compare mineral structures shown in ball-and-stick, space filling, and polyhedral diagrams.

Sketching Block Diagrams
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
Students watch a video of the instructor sketching two geologic block diagrams (of flat stratigraphy and of an upright anticline), then practice sketching additional geologic block diagrams.

Slicing Fruit
Tom Hickson, University of St. Thomas (MN)
Students identify and draw slices through fruit, as practice for drawing slices through more complex features.

Gestures for Miller Indices
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
Students use one hand to gesture crystallographic axes and the other hand to represent planes designated by Miller Indices.

Slicing Fossils
Tom Hickson, University of St. Thomas (MN)
Students examine images of brachiopods, mollusks, and coquinas. They identify, visualize, and sketch slices through a variety of shelly organisms, then apply what they've learned to identify fossils in several samples of coquina.

Linear and Planar Features
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
Students gesture the orientations of linear and planar features. In the first part of the exercise, students can only see one surface of a wooden block, and are asked to speculate about how planar features penetrate through the interior. Later, they uncover the other faces of the block and gesture the actual orientations.

Contractional Strain
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
Students use gesture to describe the bulk deformation and local deformation apparent in images of a contractional analog experiment. Students then calculate bulk shortening and bulk thickening for the experiment and describe the structures accommodating that strain.

Primary Structures and Rotation
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
Students gesture the orientations of cross-bedded sandstones, and in particular the relationship between a single cross bed and the bed sets. They do this for photos of undeformed and deformed cross-bedding.

Restraining Bends and Releasing Bends
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
Students use gestures to re-create the motion of fault blocks adjacent to restraining bends and releasing bends. They then answer a few questions about a map view of the San Andreas Fault and two of its bends.

Folds and Cleavage
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
Students explore the geometric relationship between bedding/cleavage intersections and fold axes for axial planar, fanning, and transecting cleavage.

Gestures for Silicate Structures
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
Students use gestures to show the structures of single and double chain silicate minerals, paying attention to where silica tetrahedra share oxygen ions and the relative positions of the tetrahedra.

Understanding Crystal Symmetry via Gestures
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
Students use a small mirror to explore the meaning of mirror symmetry, and then use their hands to gesture mirror planes for a group of familiar objects. They also explore the rotational symmetry of a group of familiar objects, and then use their hands to gesture the rotational axes and rotation. Finally, they use gestures to show mirror and rotational symmetry of wooden crystal models.

Understanding Mineral Cleavage via Gestures
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
Students use gesture to convey information about mineral cleavage and the relationship between crystal structures and cleavage planes.

Slicing Cylinders
Carol Ormand, Carleton College
Students identify and draw slices through cylinders and partial cylinders, and use gestures to visualize slicing planes. This practice with visualizing slices through idealized geometric shapes is preparation for visualizing slices through geological features.

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