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Estimating Exchange Rates of Water in Embayments using Simple Budget Equations.
Keith Sverdrup, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Simple budgets may be used to estimate the exchange of water in embayments that capitalize on the concept of steady state and conservation principals. This is especially true for bays that experience a significant exchange of freshwater. This exchange of freshwater may reduce the average salt concentration in the bay compared to seawater if it involves addition of freshwater from rivers, R, and/or precipitation, P. Alternatively, it may increase the average salt concentration in the bay compared to seawater if there is relatively little river input and high evaporation, E. Since freshwater input changes the salt concentration in the bay, and salt is a conservative material, it is possible to combine two steady state budgets for a bay, one for salt and one for water, to solve for the magnitude of the water flows that enter and exit the bay mouth. Students will make actual calculations for the inflow and outflow of water to Puget Sound, Washington and the Mediterranean Sea and compare them to actual measured values.
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Oceans Socratic Questioning
Dorothy Merritts, Franklin and Marshall College
Oceans Socratic questions and answers. -
Gallery Walk Questions about Coastlines
created by Mark Francek, Central Michigan University The following are potential questions that could be used in a gallery walk activity about coastlines. The questions are organized according to the cognitive ...
Exploring oil spills
Kevin Theissen, University of St. Thomas (MN)
This activity combines a hands-on demonstration and a follow-up homework assignment designed for students to investigate oil spill clean-up.
At which location in the diagram below would the waves break closer to the beach? a. A b. B c. C
ConcepTest: Longshore Current
Three hotels are located near each other along a popular beach. Hotel 2 decides to build a groin (out into the long shore current). Which of the other hotels is most likely to sue to stop the construction? a. Hotel ...
ConcepTest: Spit Formation
A beach is oriented east-west. It is bordered by bays at both its east and west ends. A current flowing parallel to the beach transports sand from west to east. In which bay will a spit form? a) east b) west
ConcepTest: Where Waves Break 2
At which location would the waves break further from the beach? a. A b. B